Clinical Skills Certificate Course:
This course is intended for ophthalmic assistants, technicians and technologists.
This course consists of short, illustrated reading segments. There is a quiz at the end of the course. Upon passing the quiz, the user will receive a certificate of completion.
Estimated time to complete:
Short Course Description:
This course refractometry (refraction) discusses basic refraction techniques, binocular balancing, high power refractometry, cylinder power optimization, controlling accommodation, near add determination, intermediate vision lenses, characteristics of astigmatism, unusual add powers, using keratometry, the astigmatic dial, and the red-green test. A discussion of how to handle glasses complaints is included.
For the Detailed Course Description, see below
The course can be purchased via Paypal (you don't need a Paypal account) by using the button below, $10 for 2 months of access. More than one course can be purchased at the same time by going to the course catalog. Courses can also be purchased via Authorize.net from the course catalog.
After purchase, the course can be accessed immediately by using the "courses" tab on the top menu bar to link to your "my courses" page.
Detailed Course Description
Refraction: The basic techniques
The beginning correction
Current or old glasses
Lights on or lights off
The visual target
Communicating with the patient
Order of testing
The initial sphere check
Cross-cylinder axis refinement
Cross-cylinder power refinement
Refine the sphere power
What is balancing?
Why use balancing?
Should I balance everyone?
How do you balance?
High Power Refractometry
Phoropter vertex device
Trial frame method
Cylinder Power Optimization
The power ratio and spherical equivalency
What is the spherical equivalent?
How is the spherical equivalent used in refractometry?
Using minus cylinder
Using plus cylinder
Controlling Accommodation When Refracting
Methods of control
Factors affecting cycloplegia
Retinoscopy and refractometry
How fogging works
Near Add Determination When Refracting
Factors affecting reading ability
Add power and lens types
The add and the pseudophake
The near point of accommodation and the amplitude of accommodation
Refracting for Intermediate Vision
Measuring the add power
More on Refractometry
More on the add power
Unequal add powers
Add powers less than 1.00
Add powers greater than 2.50
Characteristics of astigmatism
The near advantage of against-the-rule astigmatism
The distance advantage of with-the-rule astigmatism
Keratometry and refractometry:
The Javal rule
The red-green test
Handling Glasses Complaints
The Systematic Evaluation
Confirm the prescription with the lensometer.
Mark the optical centers with the lensometer.
Measure the base curves with a lens clock.
Measure the patient's PD with a PD ruler.
Check the patient's distance and near vision with the glasses on.
Look at how the patient's glasses fit on his/her face.
Handling Specific Complaints
Distance vision is blurry
Progressive lenses, any complaint
Can't read small print
Has to hold reading too close
Cannot see the computer screen well
Can only read with one eye, or closes one eye to read
The eyes don't focus at the same distance at near
Glasses seem too strong
Distortion, including slanting lines
Headache, eye soreness, eyestrain
Double vision when looking straight ahead
Double vision when looking through a lens edge
Double vision or discomfort only when looking through a bifocal
An Ounce of Prevention
Tips about keeping out of trouble when refracting and prescribing