Clinical Skills Certificate Course:

Visual Field Testing


Course level:

This course is intended for ophthalmic assistants, technicians and technologists.

Course structure:

This course consists of short, illustrated reading segments. There is a quiz at the end of the course. Upon passing the quiz, the user will receive a certificate of completion.

Estimated time to complete:

Two hours.

Short Course Description:

This course on visual field testing discusses the visual pathways, visual field defects, basic concepts of visual field testing, visual field testing methods including automated perimetry, monitoring automated visual field testing for reliability, and advanced concepts in visual field testing.

For the Detailed Course Description, see below

The course can be purchased via Paypal (you don't need a Paypal account) by using the button below, $10 for 2 months of access. More than one course can be purchased at the same time by going to the course catalog. Courses can also be purchased via from the course catalog.

After purchase, the course can be accessed immediately by using the "courses" tab on the top menu bar to link to your "my courses" page.

Detailed Course Description

The Visual Pathways

   the retina
   the optic nerve
   the optic chiasm
   the optic tract
   the lateral geniculate body
   the optic radiations
   the visual cortex

Visual Field Defects as they relate to the Pathways

   Damage to the pathways that are anterior to optic chiasm
   Damage to the optic nerve chiasm
   Damage to the pathway behind the optic chiasm

Types of Visual Field Defects

Depression, Constriction, and Scotoma
   shallow vs deep
   relative vs absolute
   defect depth
   location and shape
A scotoma vs. a sector defect or a field cut
Monocular vs Binocular defects

Basic Concepts of Visual Field Testing

central vision
peripheral vision
   Goldmann perimeter
   Automated perimeters
visual field testing
   static perimetry
   kinetic perimetry
foveal fixation
blind spot
horizontal limits
vertical limits
island of vision analogy

The Outer Limits of the Visual Field

The Limits of the Visual Field
The Confrontation Visual Field Test
   The Conventional Method
   A Better Method

Visual Field Testing Methods

Manual vs. Automated methods
Kinetic vs. Static methods
Screening vs. Diagnostic methods
Errors in Visual Field Testing
Common testing methods:
   Tangent Screen
   Goldmann Perimetry
   Automated (Humphrey, Octopus, Dicon, Topcon)
   Amsler Grid
Testing methods in disuse:
   Arc Perimeter

Automated Visual Field Testing: Monitoring for Reliability

blind spot monitor
contact lenses
eye monitor
false negative errors
false positive errors
fixation alarm
fixation losses
fixation target
Gaze Tracking
Head Tracking
pause control
patient instruction
pupil diameter
test parameters
testing strategies
trial lens
trial lens calculation
stimulus size
Vertex Monitor

Automated Visual Field Testing: What the Printout Tells Us About Reliability

age adjusted data
central 24-2 threshold test
dB graph
false negative
false positive
fixation losses
fixation target
foveal threshold testing
gaze tracking
greyscale graph
Heijl-Krakau method
pupil diameter
Rx calculation
single field analysis

Visual Field Testing: Advanced Concepts

The Threshold Strategy
Screening Strategies
Functional Field Loss
Binocular Field Testing
Esterman Functional Tests
The SSA Kinetic Test
Steep and Sloping Margins